Neodymium doped Yttrium Vanadate (Nd:YVO4 or Nd3+:YVO4) is one of the most effective and advanced materials for diode pumped lasers. Compactly designed Nd:YVO4 lasers with green, red and blue light output are really perfect means for material processing, spectroscopy, medical diagnostics, laser printing and other applications. Compared to Nd:YAG and Nd:YLF, Nd:YVO4 diode pumped lasers have: wide absorption bandwidth, low lasing threshold, high slope efficiency, large luminescent cross-section, linearly polarized emission and single-mode output. Yttrium Vanadate doped with Er3+ or Yb3+ and also with a combination of Er3+, Yb3+ (YVO4:Er3+; YVO4:Yb3+; YVO4:Er3+,Yb3+) work on wavelengths of 1.54, 1.61 µm and are used in eye safe laser applications. In contrast to Er3+, Yb3+ doped phosphate glass, Er3+, Yb3+:YVO4 crystals can be used in CW mode with high pump energy and high efficiency. Its thermal conductivity is much higher than that of glass and this improves pump characteristics of the laser and relaxes cooling requirements. Yb3+:YVO4 has a wide absorption bandwidth at 0.98 µm and can generate with high effectivity at 1.02 µm due to low losses of the pump energy. New Nd3+-doped gadolinium vanadate crystals Nd3+:GdVO4 allow to create effective diode-pumped lasers for applications in medicine and technique.